Blog Archives

Behind the scenes: My talk at TEDxBozeman


If you don’t know what a TED talk is, or you don’t know the difference between TED and TEDx, please start by reading my TED post from last November. Okay, you’re back. Good!

I’ve been asked a lot of questions about TEDxBozeman and my talk, and now that it’s over and I have decompressed a bit, I will be happy to answer them. I’ll start by saying that (A) the talk should be on TED.com and YouTube by April 21, (B) yes, my talk will be captioned, and (C) I will post more detail about the talk itself in the next few weeks.

Most of the questions, though, were about the event itself. How does this all work? What goes into a TEDx event?

On stage at TEDxBozeman 2014

On stage at TEDxBozeman 2014.

That nine minutes on stage is the culmination of months of work for me, and the process started much earlier than that for the team that put on the event. For me, it began last October when Ken Fichtler, the co-founder of TEDxBozeman, stopped by my tea bar. I wasn’t there, but he left me a note suggesting that I apply to be a presenter. Obviously, I leaped on the opportunity.

On November 19, a few nail-biting weeks after I submitted my application, the selection committee sent an email saying they’d chosen me as one of their speakers. At that point, I officially committed to do something I’d never done: memorize a speech. I’ve done a lot of public speaking, ranging from educational seminars to emceeing live events. In every single instance, I’ve had notes.

I’m good at following an outline. My speaking style, however, is like my father’s.

“Anyone who tells a joke or story the same way twice is just plain lazy.”
— Dad

He always said that a successful speaker or storyteller needs to be constantly reading the audience and adjusting the speech, and that’s what I learned to do. My notes keep me on track and I improvise the words. That isn’t the way things work in TED talks.

I first recorded myself giving the talk in early February, and sent the video in for reviews. For the most part, they were kind, but there was consensus on a couple of issues:

  1. At 15 minutes, the talk was too long.
  2. I had too many facts and figures. One reviewer actually said I sounded too much like a textbook or a Wikipedia page. Ouch. I did write the textbook on the subject, but that’s most emphatically not what my talk was supposed to sound like.

I went to work on cutting and restructuring the talk. And just as I felt good about it, the rug was pulled out from under me. The FCC unanimously voted to implement new quality standards for captioning. I had one weekend to rip out my entire lecture about why the FCC should be doing this and instead focus on what they were doing.

Talking about quality

I was using the word “quality” to talk about captions here. I could just as easily have been talking about the staff that put this event on. They were an amazing group!

I arrived in Bozeman two days before the event.

My handler

I’d like to think I don’t need much handling, but my handler certainly was helpful in making sure I was in the right places at the right times.

I should note at this point that TEDxBozeman is put on entirely by volunteers. Dozens of people donated their time to do staging, sound, video, check-in, decoration, and more. Even our handlers were volunteers. Yes, we had handlers! The TEDx speakers are not paid for this. We volunteered our time as well. They did, however, provide hotel rooms for those of us coming in from out of town, and fed us a couple of times as well. That was much appreciated.

Wednesday night was a presenter dinner. We all had an opportunity to meet each other — I had talked to everyone on video chat, but we hadn’t met face-to-face — and to meet the organizers.

The lineup of speakers for TEDxBozeman 2014 was downright intimidating. At one point, I was talking with several of them and realized I was the only one in the group without a Ph.D. I felt like Wolowitz on the Big Bang Theory, but at least he has a Masters degree. I don’t even have that!

On the other hand, many of them were speaking about subjects that really interested me. Mary Schweitzer’s talk about paleontology and studying dinosaur proteins. Rebecca Watters’ talk about wolverines. Molly Cross’ talk about climate change. We were seated at three tables, so I didn’t get a chance to talk with everyone, but I sure liked what I was hearing.

Presenter dinner

Our emcee, Paul Anderson, describes the ritual dismemberment of speakers who forget their lines. Actually, he was telling a joke, but it sure looks like he was talking about ritual dismemberment.

The organizers then gave us a little pep talk. It helped that Paul Anderson, the emcee, had done a TEDxBozeman talk himself a couple of years ago, so he was able to tell us what to expect. After dinner, I headed back to the hotel and rehearsed a few more times in front of the mirror.

Thursday was dress rehearsal day, and I got my first glimpse of the venue. Wow! The decorations and sets weren’t fully assembled yet, but I could already tell it was going to look great. For the first time, we got miked up and climbed up on stage to do a live run-through. I watched the person before me do her talk, but I didn’t really see it. This was all starting to sink in.

I started the dress rehearsal by getting about 30 seconds into the talk and having my video not work. We took a break and they figured everything out. We started again, and I must have gotten out two whole sentences before my mind went completely and utterly blank. I just stood there. The third time was a charm, however, and we made it all the way through.

Then the lighting guys came up and said that my hat was going to be an issue. It cast a shadow over my eyes. The speaker coordinator, Maddie Cebuhar, said maybe I just shouldn’t wear it. Three people said, “Oh, no. He has to wear that hat. We’ll make this work.” What we ended up deciding was that I’d tilt the hat back, and then pay attention on stage. If the lights weren’t in my eyes, I had to lift my head or tilt the hat more.

Holding the sign

They really should expect that if they have pieces of the set laying around, someone like me will pick them up and play with them. That thing’s metal, by the way. It’s quite heavy.

After my dress rehearsal, I went back to the hotel. I was pumped full of adrenaline. The email from Maddie didn’t help. She said, “Just in case there are any technical difficulties in getting your [PowerPoint] started, please be ready with a casual filler (so that you are not just standing awkwardly on stage).” I prepared a joke:

“An astrophysicist, an entrepreneur, and a wolverine expert walk into a bar. The bartender says, ‘What is this? Some kind of TED talk?'”

Then I sat there thinking about how I’d cover if the video equipment caught fire. Then I called my wife. She talked me down and told me to go clear my head, so I went to the Museum of the Rockies, where I ended up seeing an exhibit about a dinosaur dig one of the presenters worked on. Cool! I also went to the show at the planetarium. I read a book for a while, met a friend for a beer, and went back to the room to rehearse a few more times.

Friday. The big day. We had a speaker room where they fed us burritos (Yay! Beans for the presenters!) and gave us the big pre-show pep talk. I walked into the room where we’d rehearsed the day before. The sets were done. The stage was together. The cameras were set up. And the crowd was filing in.

The crowd

A sold-out room with over 500 attendees. I have no idea how many more were watching the live stream online, or how many more will eventually watch these talks on TED.com.

Our talks were divided into three sessions. I sat with my wife and daughter and watched the first set. It opened with ceremonial Native American drumming and singing by the Bobcat Singers, a TED video, and some very professional speakers that had obviously done this kind of thing a million times before (Michelle Larson and Greg Gianforte). My mind was fuzzed out by all of the adrenaline. I’ll have to watch those again because I don’t remember them.

I paid attention to Mary Schweitzer’s talk because it interested me, we watched another video, and then “Basement Jazz” closed the first session with spontaneous jazz/funk improvisation. We went into the first break, and I went to do one last dry run before we started. My handler tracked me down in a dark room where I was practicing and dragged me over to the “speaker corner” so they could wire me up for sound. I wandered back into a storage room (telling him where I was going this time) and practiced some more. When our session started, I stood and watched the first speaker (Carmen McSpadden), but I really wasn’t seeing or hearing her. I was up next.

Do I look calm?

Do I look calm? Because I’m not!

Everyone told me later that I looked calm and cool when I presented, but I certainly didn’t feel that way at the time. All I could think of was forgetting my talk. Or the video equipment bursting into flame. This is where a hundred practice runs took over. I got through the first few minutes, realized it was all flowing, and just let it go. The nervous energy turned into passion. Next think I knew, the talk was over and I was headed offstage. They got my microphone off and I watched the next talk: Rebecca Watters’ wolverine presentation was as fascinating as I had expected. Then, I got my mind blown.

Theo Bennett is a high school senior, and he gave one of the most stirring, emotional, passionate, inspirational talks I’ve ever heard. Half of the audience was in tears. He got the only standing ovation of the day, and boy, did he deserve it. Later, I tracked down Maddie and thanked her profusely for not making me follow Theo.

From that point on, I was able to relax and really watch everyone else’s talks. I hope that if you’ve read this far in my ridiculously long blog post, you’re interested enough to watch all of these when the videos are released.

Tate Chamberlin’s “experiential remix” was unique and stirring. He told his whole story to music, and it was quite a story. I’m glad I didn’t have to follow him, either.

Molly Cross has a very different point of view about climate change. It’s best summed up as “let’s take the things we can’t change and figure out how to get excited about them.” It really made me look at climate change differently.

The rest of the third session, with the exception of the musical performances by Josh Powell and the Bobcat Singers, centered on technology. I want to stay in touch with Craig Beals to see how his simple “how are you?” questions to his students develop down the road. Graham Austin made me think about my store and how people connect to it. And I’ll definitely be staying in touch with Rob Irizarry about CodeMontana and teaching children about computers.

By the end of the day, I was really ready for a beer. They served us a wonderful dinner, and we mixed and chatted. I went back to the hotel room, fully intending to head out to the after party (Tate told me all the cool kids would be there), but once I walked into the room I realized I was completely exhausted. By the time the after party started, I was already asleep.

TEDxBozeman inspired me to push my boundaries. It introduced me to a lot of people I hope will turn into friends. It crossed an item off of my bucket list. And I think it made me a better person.

One for the bucket list: Giving a TED talk


My bucket list is an eclectic — and rather lengthy — collection of things. I’ve crossed some cool stuff off of that list: competing in a rodeo, being profiled in Forbes magazine, playing guitar at a wedding, giving a guest lecture at U.C. Berkeley, getting a U.S. Patent (two, actually), getting a teaching credential. I have a few “almosts” as well. I haven’t given a commencement address at a university, but I gave one at a high school. I haven’t ridden an elephant, but I’ve ridden a camel.

Recently, I got a “close enough.” One of the items on my list is to perform standup comedy in front of a live audience. Last week, I was master of ceremonies for a comedy show raising money for a local veterans’ center. As emcee, I performed a bit between comedians. I’m crossing that one off.

In a few months, I will be achieving one of the most exciting “almosts” of my life. Giving a TED talk is on my bucket list. I will be giving a TEDx talk in March.

TEDxBozeman logo

What the heck is a TED talk?

TED started out almost 30 years ago in 1984 as a conference bringing together people to talk about Technology, Entertainment, and Design. The current format for TED talks coalesced in 2006, when the first six talks were presented. Between their website and other venues like podcasts and YouTube, TED is on the cusp of its one billionth view. TED’s current tagline is “Ideas Worth Spreading,” and it lives up to that promise very well.

TED talks are highly polished and well-produced. Each talk is limited to a maximum of 18 minutes. Some are only a few minutes long. I download TED talks to my iPad and watch them at the gym and on plane rides. I watch them on my computer. Sometimes I run them through the AppleTV so I can watch them on the big living room TV set. I’ve watched a lot of TED talks on an amazing variety of subjects — they’ve moved far beyond the original scope of tech, entertainment, and design. If you’re unfamiliar with TED, here are a few of my favorites you might like watching to get a feel for how it works:

These five videos represent things that appeal to me. They carry themes that represent big parts of my life: books, storytelling, public speaking, science, nature, technology. There are thousands more. Scan through the available TED talks and you’ll find subjects that appeal to you. I can almost guarantee it.

Look through the list of presenters, and you’ll find an impressive roster of recognizable names: Malcolm Gladwell, Arianna Huffington, Bill Gates, Doris Kearns Goodwin, Peter Gabriel, Tim Berners-Lee, Vint Cerf, Temple Grandin, David Pogue, Annie Lennox, Adam Savage, Thomas Dolby, Jeff Bezos, Tony Robbins, Al Gore, Bono. Some of these people have changed the world! Can you see why my bucket list would include walking out on the stage where they’ve spoken?

The dream begins to form

Last month, I went to work and found a message waiting for me from a gentleman named Ken Fichtler. He is a co-founder of TEDxBozeman, and dropped in to ask if I’d submit a proposal for a TEDx talk. Let me back up for a moment and explain TEDx.

TED is all about ideas worth spreading. There are far more of those ideas than can possibly be covered in the main TED events. The TED people decided that they needed to give more people an opportunity to participate, so they created TEDx, where the “x” means “Independently Organized TED Event.” On March 23, 2009, the first TEDx event was held at the University of Southern California. Since then, there have been over than 5,000 TEDx events in 148 countries and 50 languages!

If you visit the TED website, their catalog of 1,500 TED talk videos is augmented by an astonishing 30,000 TEDx videos from conferences around the world.

And Ken Fichtler was inviting me to participate. Well, to apply to participate.

I contacted him and asked if there was something in particular that led him to approach me. Was it my poop books? My work with tea? My recent talks about censorship and book banning? As it turns out, he was familiar with my work in closed captioning for deaf and hard-of-hearing people, and that’s what he had in mind.

Being the cheeky fellow that I am, I went ahead and submitted two applications. One was what I’ve been speaking about lately, and I entitled it “Does Book Banning Work?” The other, more along the lines of what he was looking for, I titled “Does Closed Captioning Still Serve Deaf People?” I sent in the applications, and I waited. For three interminably long weeks, I waited.

The decision

Three days ago, I got word that the committee had met and made a selection. It has been confirmed. They picked the captioning application.

I will be presenting a talk at TEDxBozeman on Friday, March 21, 2014.

I am hyped. I am thrilled. I am humbled. I’ve spoken to some pretty big audiences before — 650 people is my current record — but this will be the highest-profile talk I’ve ever given.

Soon, I’ll post some more about my talk, although I’m not going to give away any details. You’re going to have to either attend TEDxBozeman or catch the video online if you want the whole story.

Captioners: Remembering Your Audience


Back in the days before closed captioning was mandated, translated, and legislated, everything was clear and simple: captions were created for deaf and hard-of-hearing (HoH) people. Looking back through the rosy glow of nostalgia, captioners had a goal and worked with like-minded broadcasters and agencies to serve our target audience.

In reality, that model has been changing since before the Television Decoder Circuitry Act was enacted in 1990. Even then, less than half of the country’s 500,000 caption decoders had been sold to people with hearing impairments. Today, the average American is most likely to think of captioning as something one sees in noisy bars, gyms, and airports, but the people who need captioners are the same ones captioning was created for: the deaf and HoH audience.

High-Quality Captioning: A Conundrum

At first blush, a captioner’s goal seems simple: produce high-quality captioning. Unfortunately, that goal has two major problems. First, defining “quality.” Second, answering the critical question, “quality for whom?”

I primarily use captioning to help me keep up with the dialog on TV while the dog is barking, the grandson is talking, the phone is ringing, and the world cat-wrestling championship is taking place on the couch next to me. When I miss a word, I look at the bottom of the screen and there it is! Deaf people aren’t using captioning to fill in a few gaps. They’re using it as a substitute for the audio track. “Quality” to them isn’t the same as it is to me or to you.

When NCRA issues a CBC (Certified Broadcast Captioner) or CRR (Certified Realtime Reporter) certification, they test what’s practical to test: your ability to produce a verbatim – or near-verbatim – voice-to-text product. Getting those words transcribed and onto the screen isn’t the whole job of a captioner, though. Other facets of the captioning matter, too.

The people I interviewed for this article raised some issues that you may not normally consider part of delivering quality captioning, including:

  • Latency: The delay between the word being spoken and appearing in the captions
  • Positioning: Captions covering critical content on the screen
  • Lack of Speaker ID: Not making it clear who is speaking
  • Non-verbal Cues: Sound effects, song identification, and other non-spoken information

Latency

Dana Mulvany of Differing Abilities told me, “Significantly delayed captions end up denying access, particularly when they are cut off by commercials. They also deny access to understanding the facial expressions as well as the words.”

Delays are definitely a big issue. If the captions lag two or three seconds behind the video, it’s pretty easy to follow along and see the broadcast as a unified whole. I timed a national morning news show several times over several broadcasts, and found delays of seven to nine seconds. When watching a fast-paced newscast, it becomes difficult to understand when the captions are that far behind the video. On talk shows, I’ve measured delays of 20 seconds and more. At that point, you’re several jokes behind, and you can lose content as well.

“Delayed captions can get cut off when the program is interrupted by commercials or the end of the program, so they can be highly disruptive,” Mulvaney said.

Digital satellite broadcasts delay the video by several seconds, and DTV transcoding of captions can introduce even more delay.

Philip Bravin, former Chair of the Gallaudet University Board of Trustees, commented, “Sometimes I go back to standard definition just to enjoy captions on news better, because the latency in HDTV captioning is driving me crazy.”

One way that captioners can reduce the delay in the captions is to listen to a direct audio source over the phone instead of pulling audio from a digital broadcast. Additionally, most captioning software allows you to adjust the delay time. Clearly, if the software holds back a line or more of captions, you have more time to correct errors, which makes the caption text more accurate. This, unfortunately, comes at the expense of usability, as the delay makes captions harder to follow.

There’s more to the latency story than that, however, and most of it is out of the captioner’s control. As an example, my wife (freelance stenocaptioner Kathy Robson) was doing a sports broadcast the other day. The client required the captions to be routed to several encoders. This meant that she had to dial in to the captioning firm, which split the signal and routed it to multiple destinations. I stopwatched the delay. From the time the captions left her computer until they appeared on the satellite image we were watching was just under eight seconds. You can do your part, but you can’t fix that problem.

Positioning

I’m not speaking here of purely aesthetic decisions about where to place captions, but of practical positioning decisions that affect the usability and understandability of the captioning. Typically, this means captions covering critical content on the screen.

“[It] drives me nuts when they are captioning something that is written on the screen, like David Letterman’s Top 10 List,” said Tom Willard, Editor of Deafweekly. “Why don’t the captionists look up at the screen and stop captioning when the info is right there on the screen?”

Willard is speaking of a situation where the captions needlessly duplicate what’s on the screen – and sometimes introduce errors in doing so. Back in the old days, a captioner could simply stop writing when the Top 10 List appeared. Today, the caption text is often aggregated to produce searchable video. This means captioners can’t simply stop writing.

“Data mining is just a byproduct, I would think, but the reason there are captions is guys like me,” said Bill Graham, founder of the Association of Late-Deafened Adults (ALDA). As much as the deaf community would like to believe that, broadcasters see it differently, and if the text you attach to the video is a byproduct, it’s a very important one.

There is another placement issue as well, where the captions are covering unrelated, yet still important, information. Television producers do not make this situation easy for captioners. Turn on an NFL broadcast, and you’ll see text and graphics covering nearly a third of the screen. What do you cover with the captions? The score? The other graphics? Or the game itself?

Even when the on-screen graphics consist of a single line of Chyron text, the captions often cover that text instead of bumping up a line or moving to the top of the screen. That text may contain the name and title of a person being interviewed, which isn’t mentioned in the captions. I sometimes find myself pausing the video, backing up, turning off captions, replaying a segment, and then turning captions back on, just so I can see names and titles that the captions were covering.

What can a captioner do about it? Placement is often mandated by the broadcaster, and your only option is to make sure they’re aware of the problem when they don’t leave you a place to put the captions. Most broadcasters have a television monitor somewhere in the studio showing the captions, but that doesn’t mean someone’s watching it.

“I’d guess at most of the stations who have engineers watching captions, they don’t pay too much attention until they have to,” Bill Graham noted.

Speaker Identification

Hearing people can usually tell who is speaking even when we can’t understand what they’re saying. Deaf viewers, however, rely on lip reading and other cues to identify speakers. If the speaker is off-screen or not facing the camera, they rely on the captions for speaker identification.

“I personally am hard of hearing, so I’m able to catch most of the emotional nuances when I’m listening to the TV”, said Mulvany. “I also can catch the facial expressions if I’m not listening to the sound and if the captions are synchronized.” Extreme delays definitely exacerbate the problem. It’s hard to remember whose lips were moving eight seconds ago in a fast-moving show.

There are a lot of reasons not to provide speaker identification when realtiming. It slows you down; sometimes you don’t know who’s speaking; you may not get the names in advance.

All understandable, but there is a middle ground. On a talk show, for example, having speaker IDs for the host and sidekick or bandleader might be enough if you add “Guest” and “Audience Member.” Even following the news convention of starting a line with >> when there is a new speaker would be a big help on many shows.

Mulvany went on to add, “Europeans use color to indicate who is speaking, so if that has been proven to work there, it would seem very useful here, too.” I’ve raised this question with captioners in the past, and met with a great deal of resistance, but I’m not entirely sure why.

Quite some time ago, I was doing some work with the BBC. They assigned colors to each of the anchors on the show, and used white text for everyone else. Once the speaker IDs were properly defined in the captioning software, the entire process was automatic. We’ve had that capability in U.S. captioning software for over 20 years, yet I know of nobody that uses it.

Non-verbal Cues

In the 1970s and 80s, when someone asked me the difference between closed captioning and subtitling, I had two easy differences to point out. The first was that captions could be turned on and off and subtitles couldn’t. The second was that captions included non-verbal cues for deaf/HoH people (e.g., “gunshot” or “footsteps approaching” or “Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony playing softly”).

This seems to have tapered off in recent years, and consumers who don’t understand it may actually complain about it, as we saw in January 2011. President Obama was speaking in Tucson at a memorial service, and someone happened to photograph the captioning on the Jumbotron just when the line [APPLAUSE] appeared. A blogger named Jim Hoft manufactured quite a bit of outrage by claiming that the captioner was asking audience members to applaud rather than indicating that they already were. He was shouted down rather swiftly, but the lesson remains: there are people who don’t understand why non-verbal cues are included in the captions.

Some broadcasters or captioners may be omitting non-verbal cues on purpose, but that’s not always how the deaf viewers see it.

“There just seem to be variations based on how diligent people are about doing their jobs,” said Willard. “I do see shows that give a lot of clues about background noise and others that don’t. Seems to come down to how much they care.”

Sometimes the deaf and HoH audiences ask for things that may not be practical to provide. “I think it’s probably not possible for realtime captioners to provide all the non-verbal information that’s desirable,” Mulvaney said, “but I do think it’s very important to indicate when the tone of voice is sarcastic or ironic.”

Is There an Answer?

The shift in captioning focus isn’t all bad. Bravin noted that, “Captioning has become more or less mainstream, so the deaf and HoH focus is pretty much gone, but it helps force the captioning issue because there s a legal requirement.”

Currently, television stations in the nation’s top 25 markets are required to provide realtime captioning for newscasts, but all other stations can use TelePrompTer-based captioning. Everyone I spoke to in the deaf/HoH communities agreed that upgrading the rest of the nation to realtime would be a great start.

“It’s been decades and I’m used to it, but the captioning of local news is a pain in the neck if you’re not in one of the big markets that requires real-time captioning,” said Tom Willard.

Training more new captioners is another issue. Obviously, the law of supply and demand would indicate that having too many captioners would drive down pay in a market that’s already seen dramatic declines in hourly rates in the last two decades. But consumers are concerned.

“The quality of the captioning is likely to get worse as the demand for captioning grows simply because there are not enough high-quality captioners out there,” Bill Graham commented. Graham isn’t just looking at television, though.

“All these webinars that are proliferating for example: few are captioned,” he continued. “If there is a webinar to help people get ahead in their jobs, what happens is that deaf people get farther behind. This is going to be a BIG problem in the future: news vs. livelihood; entertainment vs. education and jobs.”

And, finally, Willard echoed a common theme when he was speaking of disappearing (prescripted) captions and said, “I really resent that it is my job to be a compliance officer, that it is up to me to have to complain about it to my cable company.”

Bravin agreed: “It’s too much of an hassle to file a complaint, and then with no complaints it’s harder for the FCC to enforce quality.”

Should the FCC be legislating caption quality? Should broadcasters be working with deaf/HoH consumers to improve captioning? Questions like this can’t be resolved by captioners or captioning companies, but being aware of the issues that affect the lives of deaf and hard-of-hearing people can help keep you focused on the people who need you most.

Book signing in Las Vegas on July 29


Closed Captioning HandbookI will be signing copies of The Closed Captioning Handbook at the National Court Reporters Association convention in Las Vegas later this month. If you will be in the area, but aren’t attending the convention, get in touch with me and I’ll make sure you can still get a signed copy of the book.

I will bring copies of some of my Who Pooped in the Park? books as well, for those who won’t be able to attend my Who Pooped? signing the following day in the visitors center at Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area.

Just for fun, I’m also going to bring along a few copies of The Court Reporter’s Guide to Cyberspace, which I wrote with Richard Sherman way back in 1996. Most of the information in it is out-of-date, but it is a fun and entertaining romp through the history of … well … court reporters in cyberspace. We’ll have some contests or drawings and give those away.

Who Pooped? Red Rock Canyon   Court Reporters Guide to Cyberspace

When: Friday, July 29 from 1:00 to 4:00pm
Where: Near the NCRA Store booth

New and upcoming magazine articles


Acres USA May 2011 coverJust in case you’re keeping track, these are my latest three magazine articles.

  • “Easy Keepers” (Corriente cattle) in the May issue of Acres U.S.A. (out now)
  • “History of Kilts” in the September issue of Renaissance
  • “Internet Caption Delivery” in an upcoming issue of the Journal of Court Reporting
    (the publication of the National Court Reporters Association)
%d bloggers like this: